Figure 1. The Recorded Aftershocks in Lombok Island (BMKG, 2018).
It has been 5 days since the last major earthquake rocked cities and municipalities in Lombok Island, West Nusa Tenggara, with a magnitude of 6.2 M. Rescue and relief efforts are still ongoing. Authorities have stepped up their mobilization of resources and assets on the ground. Humanitarian aid workers are growing rapidly, with around 83 national/humanitarian partners joining in the effort as of August 11th, far surpassing the 17 reported initially (AHA Centre, 2018). Previously, the governor of West Nusa Tenggara set an emergency response period, known as "Keadaan Tanggap Darurat", until August 11th. The response period was initiated to increase awareness and alertness in anticipating immediate disaster and managing its impacts (National Disaster Manegement Authority (BNPB), 2011; Nugroho & Si, 2018). The governor has extended the emergency response period effectively from 12 to 25 August 2018 to ensure evacuation, prevention measures, and national government support continues (AHA Centre, 2018).
Current Assessment of Impacts and Responses There have been a staggering 597 aftershocks since the initial 7.0 M earthquake on August 5th, of which most were minor enough not to be felt, except for the 24 that were in the magnitude range of 3-6.2 M and depth of 10-25 KM. The recorded aftershocks could be found in Figure 1. Assessments of casualties and damages has also been updated by officials on the ground. North Lombok district continues in its unfortunate status as the area most affected, from which 366 fatalities and 137 thousand displaced persons were reported. In total, the number of fatalities reported has risen to 428. The number of displaced residents has more than doubled to 352 thousand persons. 71 thousand homes are damaged, along with 458 education infrastructure units, which include 60 schools. 115 mosques and 10 Hindu temples are damaged. (POS KOMANDO PENANGANAN DARURAT BENCANA GEMPA LOMBOK 2018, 2018). The assessment of casualties and damages could be found in Table 1.
Figure 2. The Recorded Aftershocks in Lombok Island (BMKG, 2018)
Table 1. Current Assessment of Casualties and Damages in Lombok Island (AHA Centre, 2018)
Authorities have responded to previous reports which informed the absence of electricity in several parts of the island. The State Electricity Company (PLN) has sent 128 technicians from East Java and Bali to the aforementioned areas, in order to assist local technicians in repairing numerous electrical grids and high voltage transmission cables. As a result, electricity in a number of villages and displacement camps in Tanjung and Pemenang, North Lombok has been replenished (AHA Centre, 2018; Anwar, 2018
A joint search-and-rescue task force was assembled to continue the ongoing evacuation efforts. Logistical assistance for those who are displaced have been extended to more remote areas that were previously out of reach. Clean water are distributed and stored with the help of water tanks, hydrants, and large man-made water basins in the displacement camps. The provision of water is important as it is timely due to a minor case of drought that occurred resulting from the region's lack of rainfall (0-20 mm) (AHA Centre, 2018; Nugroho, 2018a). The lack of accessibility in the island's more remote areas hamper authorities from expanding their reach. A portion of the island's road network are damaged. Those that are still intact are incapable of containing the large number of vehicles passing through, especially vehicles heading to the hillside displacement camps. To cope with this, three helicopters from the BNPB and the military are utilized (Nugroho, 2018b, 2018a).
Preliminary findings regarding the economic cost of the earthquake have surfaced, most notably from the BNPB Deputy for Rehabilitation and Reconstruction. Quick counts and rough estimates conclude the economic loss from the earthquake to be around 5 trillion Rupiah, as of August 9th. The BNPB stated that the number will only rise once they could fully assess the potential economic loss resulting from damages, lost productivity, and rehabilitation. Their numbers show that the largest loss was incurred due to damages in the settlement sector, around 3.82 trillion Rupiah. Lost productivity cost the economy around 432 billion Rupiah. The numbers will continue to rise as authorities further calculate the amount of money needed for future reconstruction and rehabilitation. However, they have stated that the state government will continue supporting the rebuilding of Lombok Island, financially or otherwise (Nugroho, 2018a). A more complete picture of current damages and needs of displaced residents could be found
Education Sector The Education infrastructure in Lombok Island have also endured a hit due to the earthquakes. As of August 12th, it has been reported that over 600 educational units have been damaged. A unit is a mode of measurement which includes elementary, junior, and high schools. It also includes specialization schools such as academies, madrasa, and Islamic boarding schools, colloquially known as Pesantren. 21 pesantren in North Lombok, out of 55 on the whole island, are badly damaged. 17 students have died and 56 students are badly injured. 3639 students and teachers have been displaced. The Ministry of Education and Culture have deployed an emergency response team which consist of members from all its directorates. Their priorities are, among others, establishing an education post in the form of school tents, distribute uniforms and school packets for children eager to go back to school, and assist in repairing schools that are badly damaged. School packets usually consist of a bag, books, shoes, socks, and stationaries (Satuan Pendidikan Aman Bencana, 2018).
The Ministry have allocated more than 229 billion Rupiah for the emergency response team and future rehabilitation. However, the number of school packets and tents are currently substantially less than what is required in order to enable every displaced student to go back to school. The figure shows that officials require an additional 278 tents and school packets. If these requirements are fulfilled, officials stand a better chance in ensuring every child can receive proper education in improper conditions. Complete information is provided in Figure 3.
Figure 3. Education Infrastructure Affected in Lombok Island (Satuan Pendidikan Aman Bencana, 2018)
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